{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
module TcSimplify(
simplifyInfer,
quantifyPred, growThetaTyVars,
simplifyAmbiguityCheck,
simplifyDefault,
simplifyTop, simplifyInteractive,
solveWantedsTcM,
-- For Rules we need these twoo
solveWanteds, runTcS
) where
#include "HsVersions.h"
import TcRnTypes
import TcRnMonad
import TcErrors
import TcMType as TcM
import TcType
import TcSMonad as TcS
import TcInteract
import Kind ( isKind, defaultKind_maybe )
import Inst
import Unify ( tcMatchTy )
import Type ( classifyPredType, isIPClass, PredTree(..)
, getClassPredTys_maybe, EqRel(..) )
import TyCon ( isTypeFamilyTyCon )
import Class ( Class )
import Id ( idType )
import Var
import Unique
import VarSet
import TcEvidence
import Name
import Bag
import ListSetOps
import Util
import PrelInfo
import PrelNames
import Control.Monad ( unless )
import DynFlags ( ExtensionFlag( Opt_AllowAmbiguousTypes ) )
import Class ( classKey )
import Maybes ( isNothing )
import Outputable
import FastString
import TrieMap () -- DV: for now
import Data.List( partition )
{-
*********************************************************************************
* *
* External interface *
* *
*********************************************************************************
-}
simplifyTop :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind)
-- Simplify top-level constraints
-- Usually these will be implications,
-- but when there is nothing to quantify we don't wrap
-- in a degenerate implication, so we do that here instead
simplifyTop wanteds
= do { traceTc "simplifyTop {" $ text "wanted = " <+> ppr wanteds
; (final_wc, binds1) <- runTcS (simpl_top wanteds)
; traceTc "End simplifyTop }" empty
; traceTc "reportUnsolved {" empty
; binds2 <- reportUnsolved final_wc
; traceTc "reportUnsolved }" empty
; return (binds1 `unionBags` binds2) }
simpl_top :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints
-- See Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan]
simpl_top wanteds
= do { wc_first_go <- nestTcS (solveWantedsAndDrop wanteds)
-- This is where the main work happens
; try_tyvar_defaulting wc_first_go }
where
try_tyvar_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints
try_tyvar_defaulting wc
| isEmptyWC wc
= return wc
| otherwise
= do { free_tvs <- TcS.zonkTyVarsAndFV (tyVarsOfWC wc)
; let meta_tvs = varSetElems (filterVarSet isMetaTyVar free_tvs)
-- zonkTyVarsAndFV: the wc_first_go is not yet zonked
-- filter isMetaTyVar: we might have runtime-skolems in GHCi,
-- and we definitely don't want to try to assign to those!
; meta_tvs' <- mapM defaultTyVar meta_tvs -- Has unification side effects
; if meta_tvs' == meta_tvs -- No defaulting took place;
-- (defaulting returns fresh vars)
then try_class_defaulting wc
else do { wc_residual <- nestTcS (solveWantedsAndDrop wc)
-- See Note [Must simplify after defaulting]
; try_class_defaulting wc_residual } }
try_class_defaulting :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints
try_class_defaulting wc
| isEmptyWC wc
= return wc
| otherwise -- See Note [When to do type-class defaulting]
= do { something_happened <- applyDefaultingRules wc
-- See Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan]
; if something_happened
then do { wc_residual <- nestTcS (solveWantedsAndDrop wc)
; try_class_defaulting wc_residual }
else return wc }
{-
Note [When to do type-class defaulting]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In GHC 7.6 and 7.8.2, we did type-class defaulting only if insolubleWC
was false, on the grounds that defaulting can't help solve insoluble
constraints. But if we *don't* do defaulting we may report a whole
lot of errors that would be solved by defaulting; these errors are
quite spurious because fixing the single insoluble error means that
defaulting happens again, which makes all the other errors go away.
This is jolly confusing: Trac #9033.
So it seems better to always do type-class defaulting.
However, always doing defaulting does mean that we'll do it in
situations like this (Trac #5934):
run :: (forall s. GenST s) -> Int
run = fromInteger 0
We don't unify the return type of fromInteger with the given function
type, because the latter involves foralls. So we're left with
(Num alpha, alpha ~ (forall s. GenST s) -> Int)
Now we do defaulting, get alpha := Integer, and report that we can't
match Integer with (forall s. GenST s) -> Int. That's not totally
stupid, but perhaps a little strange.
Another potential alternative would be to suppress *all* non-insoluble
errors if there are *any* insoluble errors, anywhere, but that seems
too drastic.
Note [Must simplify after defaulting]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We may have a deeply buried constraint
(t:*) ~ (a:Open)
which we couldn't solve because of the kind incompatibility, and 'a' is free.
Then when we default 'a' we can solve the constraint. And we want to do
that before starting in on type classes. We MUST do it before reporting
errors, because it isn't an error! Trac #7967 was due to this.
Note [Top-level Defaulting Plan]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We have considered two design choices for where/when to apply defaulting.
(i) Do it in SimplCheck mode only /whenever/ you try to solve some
simple constraints, maybe deep inside the context of implications.
This used to be the case in GHC 7.4.1.
(ii) Do it in a tight loop at simplifyTop, once all other constraint has
finished. This is the current story.
Option (i) had many disadvantages:
a) First it was deep inside the actual solver,
b) Second it was dependent on the context (Infer a type signature,
or Check a type signature, or Interactive) since we did not want
to always start defaulting when inferring (though there is an exception to
this see Note [Default while Inferring])
c) It plainly did not work. Consider typecheck/should_compile/DfltProb2.hs:
f :: Int -> Bool
f x = const True (\y -> let w :: a -> a
w a = const a (y+1)
in w y)
We will get an implication constraint (for beta the type of y):
[untch=beta] forall a. 0 => Num beta
which we really cannot default /while solving/ the implication, since beta is
untouchable.
Instead our new defaulting story is to pull defaulting out of the solver loop and
go with option (i), implemented at SimplifyTop. Namely:
- First have a go at solving the residual constraint of the whole program
- Try to approximate it with a simple constraint
- Figure out derived defaulting equations for that simple constraint
- Go round the loop again if you did manage to get some equations
Now, that has to do with class defaulting. However there exists type variable /kind/
defaulting. Again this is done at the top-level and the plan is:
- At the top-level, once you had a go at solving the constraint, do
figure out /all/ the touchable unification variables of the wanted constraints.
- Apply defaulting to their kinds
More details in Note [DefaultTyVar].
-}
------------------
simplifyAmbiguityCheck :: Type -> WantedConstraints -> TcM ()
simplifyAmbiguityCheck ty wanteds
= do { traceTc "simplifyAmbiguityCheck {" (text "type = " <+> ppr ty $$ text "wanted = " <+> ppr wanteds)
; (final_wc, _binds) <- runTcS (simpl_top wanteds)
; traceTc "End simplifyAmbiguityCheck }" empty
-- Normally report all errors; but with -XAllowAmbiguousTypes
-- report only insoluble ones, since they represent genuinely
-- inaccessible code
; allow_ambiguous <- xoptM Opt_AllowAmbiguousTypes
; traceTc "reportUnsolved(ambig) {" empty
; unless (allow_ambiguous && not (insolubleWC final_wc))
(discardResult (reportUnsolved final_wc))
; traceTc "reportUnsolved(ambig) }" empty
; return () }
------------------
simplifyInteractive :: WantedConstraints -> TcM (Bag EvBind)
simplifyInteractive wanteds
= traceTc "simplifyInteractive" empty >>
simplifyTop wanteds
------------------
simplifyDefault :: ThetaType -- Wanted; has no type variables in it
-> TcM () -- Succeeds iff the constraint is soluble
simplifyDefault theta
= do { traceTc "simplifyInteractive" empty
; wanted <- newWanteds DefaultOrigin theta
; unsolved <- solveWantedsTcM wanted
; traceTc "reportUnsolved {" empty
-- See Note [Deferring coercion errors to runtime]
; reportAllUnsolved unsolved
; traceTc "reportUnsolved }" empty
; return () }
{-
*********************************************************************************
* *
* Inference
* *
***********************************************************************************
Note [Inferring the type of a let-bound variable]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider
f x = rhs
To infer f's type we do the following:
* Gather the constraints for the RHS with ambient level *one more than*
the current one. This is done by the call
pushLevelAndCaptureConstraints (tcMonoBinds...)
in TcBinds.tcPolyInfer
* Call simplifyInfer to simplify the constraints and decide what to
quantify over. We pass in the level used for the RHS constraints,
here called rhs_tclvl.
This ensures that the implication constraint we generate, if any,
has a strictly-increased level compared to the ambient level outside
the let binding.
-}
simplifyInfer :: TcLevel -- Used when generating the constraints
-> Bool -- Apply monomorphism restriction
-> [(Name, TcTauType)] -- Variables to be generalised,
-- and their tau-types
-> WantedConstraints
-> TcM ([TcTyVar], -- Quantify over these type variables
[EvVar], -- ... and these constraints (fully zonked)
Bool, -- The monomorphism restriction did something
-- so the results type is not as general as
-- it could be
TcEvBinds) -- ... binding these evidence variables
simplifyInfer rhs_tclvl apply_mr name_taus wanteds
| isEmptyWC wanteds
= do { gbl_tvs <- tcGetGlobalTyVars
; qtkvs <- quantifyTyVars gbl_tvs (tyVarsOfTypes (map snd name_taus))
; traceTc "simplifyInfer: empty WC" (ppr name_taus $$ ppr qtkvs)
; return (qtkvs, [], False, emptyTcEvBinds) }
| otherwise
= do { traceTc "simplifyInfer {" $ vcat
[ ptext (sLit "binds =") <+> ppr name_taus
, ptext (sLit "rhs_tclvl =") <+> ppr rhs_tclvl
, ptext (sLit "apply_mr =") <+> ppr apply_mr
, ptext (sLit "(unzonked) wanted =") <+> ppr wanteds
]
-- Historical note: Before step 2 we used to have a
-- HORRIBLE HACK described in Note [Avoid unecessary
-- constraint simplification] but, as described in Trac
-- #4361, we have taken in out now. That's why we start
-- with step 2!
-- Step 2) First try full-blown solving
-- NB: we must gather up all the bindings from doing
-- this solving; hence (runTcSWithEvBinds ev_binds_var).
-- And note that since there are nested implications,
-- calling solveWanteds will side-effect their evidence
-- bindings, so we can't just revert to the input
-- constraint.
; ev_binds_var <- TcM.newTcEvBinds
; wanted_transformed_incl_derivs <- setTcLevel rhs_tclvl $
runTcSWithEvBinds ev_binds_var (solveWanteds wanteds)
; wanted_transformed_incl_derivs <- TcM.zonkWC wanted_transformed_incl_derivs
-- Step 4) Candidates for quantification are an approximation of wanted_transformed
-- NB: Already the fixpoint of any unifications that may have happened
-- NB: We do not do any defaulting when inferring a type, this can lead
-- to less polymorphic types, see Note [Default while Inferring]
; tc_lcl_env <- TcRnMonad.getLclEnv
; null_ev_binds_var <- TcM.newTcEvBinds
; let wanted_transformed = dropDerivedWC wanted_transformed_incl_derivs
; quant_pred_candidates -- Fully zonked
<- if insolubleWC wanted_transformed_incl_derivs
then return [] -- See Note [Quantification with errors]
-- NB: must include derived errors in this test,
-- hence "incl_derivs"
else do { let quant_cand = approximateWC wanted_transformed
meta_tvs = filter isMetaTyVar (varSetElems (tyVarsOfCts quant_cand))
; gbl_tvs <- tcGetGlobalTyVars
-- Miminise quant_cand. We are not interested in any evidence
-- produced, because we are going to simplify wanted_transformed
-- again later. All we want here is the predicates over which to
-- quantify.
--
-- If any meta-tyvar unifications take place (unlikely), we'll
-- pick that up later.
; WC { wc_simple = simples }
<- setTcLevel rhs_tclvl $
runTcSWithEvBinds null_ev_binds_var $
do { mapM_ (promoteAndDefaultTyVar rhs_tclvl gbl_tvs) meta_tvs
-- See Note [Promote _and_ default when inferring]
; solveSimpleWanteds quant_cand }
; return [ ctEvPred ev | ct <- bagToList simples
, let ev = ctEvidence ct
, isWanted ev ] }
-- NB: quant_pred_candidates is already fully zonked
-- Decide what type variables and constraints to quantify
; zonked_taus <- mapM (TcM.zonkTcType . snd) name_taus
; let zonked_tau_tvs = tyVarsOfTypes zonked_taus
; (qtvs, bound_theta, mr_bites)
<- decideQuantification apply_mr quant_pred_candidates zonked_tau_tvs
-- Emit an implication constraint for the
-- remaining constraints from the RHS
; bound_ev_vars <- mapM TcM.newEvVar bound_theta
; let skol_info = InferSkol [ (name, mkSigmaTy [] bound_theta ty)
| (name, ty) <- name_taus ]
-- Don't add the quantified variables here, because
-- they are also bound in ic_skols and we want them
-- to be tidied uniformly
implic = Implic { ic_tclvl = rhs_tclvl
, ic_skols = qtvs
, ic_no_eqs = False
, ic_given = bound_ev_vars
, ic_wanted = wanted_transformed
, ic_status = IC_Unsolved
, ic_binds = ev_binds_var
, ic_info = skol_info
, ic_env = tc_lcl_env }
; emitImplication implic
-- Promote any type variables that are free in the inferred type
-- of the function:
-- f :: forall qtvs. bound_theta => zonked_tau
-- These variables now become free in the envt, and hence will show
-- up whenever 'f' is called. They may currently at rhs_tclvl, but
-- they had better be unifiable at the outer_tclvl!
-- Example: envt mentions alpha[1]
-- tau_ty = beta[2] -> beta[2]
-- consraints = alpha ~ [beta]
-- we don't quantify over beta (since it is fixed by envt)
-- so we must promote it! The inferred type is just
-- f :: beta -> beta
; outer_tclvl <- TcRnMonad.getTcLevel
; zonked_tau_tvs <- TcM.zonkTyVarsAndFV zonked_tau_tvs
-- decideQuantification turned some meta tyvars into
-- quantified skolems, so we have to zonk again
; let phi_tvs = tyVarsOfTypes bound_theta `unionVarSet` zonked_tau_tvs
promote_tvs = varSetElems (closeOverKinds phi_tvs `delVarSetList` qtvs)
; runTcSWithEvBinds null_ev_binds_var $ -- runTcS just to get the types right :-(
mapM_ (promoteTyVar outer_tclvl) promote_tvs
-- All done!
; traceTc "} simplifyInfer/produced residual implication for quantification" $
vcat [ ptext (sLit "quant_pred_candidates =") <+> ppr quant_pred_candidates
, ptext (sLit "zonked_taus") <+> ppr zonked_taus
, ptext (sLit "zonked_tau_tvs=") <+> ppr zonked_tau_tvs
, ptext (sLit "promote_tvs=") <+> ppr promote_tvs
, ptext (sLit "bound_theta =") <+> vcat [ ppr v <+> dcolon <+> ppr (idType v)
| v <- bound_ev_vars]
, ptext (sLit "mr_bites =") <+> ppr mr_bites
, ptext (sLit "qtvs =") <+> ppr qtvs
, ptext (sLit "implic =") <+> ppr implic ]
; return ( qtvs, bound_ev_vars, mr_bites, TcEvBinds ev_binds_var) }
{-
************************************************************************
* *
Quantification
* *
************************************************************************
Note [Deciding quantification]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If the monomorphism restriction does not apply, then we quantify as follows:
* Take the global tyvars, and "grow" them using the equality constraints
E.g. if x:alpha is in the environment, and alpha ~ [beta] (which can
happen because alpha is untouchable here) then do not quantify over
beta, because alpha fixes beta, and beta is effectively free in
the environment too
These are the mono_tvs
* Take the free vars of the tau-type (zonked_tau_tvs) and "grow" them
using all the constraints. These are tau_tvs_plus
* Use quantifyTyVars to quantify over (tau_tvs_plus - mono_tvs), being
careful to close over kinds, and to skolemise the quantified tyvars.
(This actually unifies each quantifies meta-tyvar with a fresh skolem.)
Result is qtvs.
* Filter the constraints using quantifyPred and the qtvs. We have to
zonk the constraints first, so they "see" the freshly created skolems.
If the MR does apply, mono_tvs includes all the constrained tyvars,
and the quantified constraints are empty.
-}
decideQuantification
:: Bool -- Apply monomorphism restriction
-> [PredType] -> TcTyVarSet -- Constraints and type variables from RHS
-> TcM ( [TcTyVar] -- Quantify over these tyvars (skolems)
, [PredType] -- and this context (fully zonked)
, Bool ) -- Did the MR bite?
-- See Note [Deciding quantification]
decideQuantification apply_mr constraints zonked_tau_tvs
| apply_mr -- Apply the Monomorphism restriction
= do { gbl_tvs <- tcGetGlobalTyVars
; let constrained_tvs = tyVarsOfTypes constraints
mono_tvs = gbl_tvs `unionVarSet` constrained_tvs
mr_bites = constrained_tvs `intersectsVarSet` zonked_tau_tvs
; qtvs <- quantifyTyVars mono_tvs zonked_tau_tvs
; traceTc "decideQuantification 1" (vcat [ppr constraints, ppr gbl_tvs, ppr mono_tvs, ppr qtvs])
; return (qtvs, [], mr_bites) }
| otherwise
= do { gbl_tvs <- tcGetGlobalTyVars
; let mono_tvs = growThetaTyVars (filter isEqPred constraints) gbl_tvs
tau_tvs_plus = growThetaTyVars constraints zonked_tau_tvs
; qtvs <- quantifyTyVars mono_tvs tau_tvs_plus
; constraints <- zonkTcThetaType constraints
-- quantifyTyVars turned some meta tyvars into
-- quantified skolems, so we have to zonk again
; let theta = filter (quantifyPred (mkVarSet qtvs)) constraints
min_theta = mkMinimalBySCs theta -- See Note [Minimize by Superclasses]
; traceTc "decideQuantification 2" (vcat [ppr constraints, ppr gbl_tvs, ppr mono_tvs
, ppr tau_tvs_plus, ppr qtvs, ppr min_theta])
; return (qtvs, min_theta, False) }
------------------
quantifyPred :: TyVarSet -- Quantifying over these
-> PredType -> Bool -- True <=> quantify over this wanted
-- This function decides whether a particular constraint shoudl be
-- quantified over, given the type variables that are being quantified
quantifyPred qtvs pred
= case classifyPredType pred of
ClassPred cls tys
| isIPClass cls -> True -- See note [Inheriting implicit parameters]
| otherwise -> tyVarsOfTypes tys `intersectsVarSet` qtvs
EqPred NomEq ty1 ty2 -> quant_fun ty1 || quant_fun ty2
-- representational equality is like a class constraint
EqPred ReprEq ty1 ty2 -> tyVarsOfTypes [ty1, ty2] `intersectsVarSet` qtvs
IrredPred ty -> tyVarsOfType ty `intersectsVarSet` qtvs
TuplePred {} -> False
where
-- See Note [Quantifying over equality constraints]
quant_fun ty
= case tcSplitTyConApp_maybe ty of
Just (tc, tys) | isTypeFamilyTyCon tc
-> tyVarsOfTypes tys `intersectsVarSet` qtvs
_ -> False
------------------
growThetaTyVars :: ThetaType -> TyVarSet -> TyVarSet
-- See Note [Growing the tau-tvs using constraints]
growThetaTyVars theta tvs
| null theta = tvs
| otherwise = transCloVarSet mk_next seed_tvs
where
seed_tvs = tvs `unionVarSet` tyVarsOfTypes ips
(ips, non_ips) = partition isIPPred theta
-- See note [Inheriting implicit parameters]
mk_next :: VarSet -> VarSet -- Maps current set to newly-grown ones
mk_next so_far = foldr (grow_one so_far) emptyVarSet non_ips
grow_one so_far pred tvs
| pred_tvs `intersectsVarSet` so_far = tvs `unionVarSet` pred_tvs
| otherwise = tvs
where
pred_tvs = tyVarsOfType pred
{-
Note [Quantifying over equality constraints]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Should we quantify over an equality constraint (s ~ t)? In general, we don't.
Doing so may simply postpone a type error from the function definition site to
its call site. (At worst, imagine (Int ~ Bool)).
However, consider this
forall a. (F [a] ~ Int) => blah
Should we quantify over the (F [a] ~ Int). Perhaps yes, because at the call
site we will know 'a', and perhaps we have instance F [Bool] = Int.
So we *do* quantify over a type-family equality where the arguments mention
the quantified variables.
Note [Growing the tau-tvs using constraints]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(growThetaTyVars insts tvs) is the result of extending the set
of tyvars tvs using all conceivable links from pred
E.g. tvs = {a}, preds = {H [a] b, K (b,Int) c, Eq e}
Then growThetaTyVars preds tvs = {a,b,c}
Notice that
growThetaTyVars is conservative if v might be fixed by vs
=> v `elem` grow(vs,C)
Note [Inheriting implicit parameters]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this:
f x = (x::Int) + ?y
where f is *not* a top-level binding.
From the RHS of f we'll get the constraint (?y::Int).
There are two types we might infer for f:
f :: Int -> Int
(so we get ?y from the context of f's definition), or
f :: (?y::Int) => Int -> Int
At first you might think the first was better, because then
?y behaves like a free variable of the definition, rather than
having to be passed at each call site. But of course, the WHOLE
IDEA is that ?y should be passed at each call site (that's what
dynamic binding means) so we'd better infer the second.
BOTTOM LINE: when *inferring types* you must quantify over implicit
parameters, *even if* they don't mention the bound type variables.
Reason: because implicit parameters, uniquely, have local instance
declarations. See the predicate quantifyPred.
Note [Quantification with errors]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If we find that the RHS of the definition has some absolutely-insoluble
constraints, we abandon all attempts to find a context to quantify
over, and instead make the function fully-polymorphic in whatever
type we have found. For two reasons
a) Minimise downstream errors
b) Avoid spurious errors from this function
But NB that we must include *derived* errors in the check. Example:
(a::*) ~ Int#
We get an insoluble derived error *~#, and we don't want to discard
it before doing the isInsolubleWC test! (Trac #8262)
Note [Default while Inferring]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Our current plan is that defaulting only happens at simplifyTop and
not simplifyInfer. This may lead to some insoluble deferred constraints
Example:
instance D g => C g Int b
constraint inferred = (forall b. 0 => C gamma alpha b) /\ Num alpha
type inferred = gamma -> gamma
Now, if we try to default (alpha := Int) we will be able to refine the implication to
(forall b. 0 => C gamma Int b)
which can then be simplified further to
(forall b. 0 => D gamma)
Finally we /can/ approximate this implication with (D gamma) and infer the quantified
type: forall g. D g => g -> g
Instead what will currently happen is that we will get a quantified type
(forall g. g -> g) and an implication:
forall g. 0 => (forall b. 0 => C g alpha b) /\ Num alpha
which, even if the simplifyTop defaults (alpha := Int) we will still be left with an
unsolvable implication:
forall g. 0 => (forall b. 0 => D g)
The concrete example would be:
h :: C g a s => g -> a -> ST s a
f (x::gamma) = (\_ -> x) (runST (h x (undefined::alpha)) + 1)
But it is quite tedious to do defaulting and resolve the implication constraints and
we have not observed code breaking because of the lack of defaulting in inference so
we don't do it for now.
Note [Minimize by Superclasses]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When we quantify over a constraint, in simplifyInfer we need to
quantify over a constraint that is minimal in some sense: For
instance, if the final wanted constraint is (Eq alpha, Ord alpha),
we'd like to quantify over Ord alpha, because we can just get Eq alpha
from superclass selection from Ord alpha. This minimization is what
mkMinimalBySCs does. Then, simplifyInfer uses the minimal constraint
to check the original wanted.
Note [Avoid unecessary constraint simplification]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-------- NB NB NB (Jun 12) -------------
This note not longer applies; see the notes with Trac #4361.
But I'm leaving it in here so we remember the issue.)
----------------------------------------
When inferring the type of a let-binding, with simplifyInfer,
try to avoid unnecessarily simplifying class constraints.
Doing so aids sharing, but it also helps with delicate
situations like
instance C t => C [t] where ..
f :: C [t] => ....
f x = let g y = ...(constraint C [t])...
in ...
When inferring a type for 'g', we don't want to apply the
instance decl, because then we can't satisfy (C t). So we
just notice that g isn't quantified over 't' and partition
the constraints before simplifying.
This only half-works, but then let-generalisation only half-works.
*********************************************************************************
* *
* Main Simplifier *
* *
***********************************************************************************
Note [Deferring coercion errors to runtime]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
While developing, sometimes it is desirable to allow compilation to succeed even
if there are type errors in the code. Consider the following case:
module Main where
a :: Int
a = 'a'
main = print "b"
Even though `a` is ill-typed, it is not used in the end, so if all that we're
interested in is `main` it is handy to be able to ignore the problems in `a`.
Since we treat type equalities as evidence, this is relatively simple. Whenever
we run into a type mismatch in TcUnify, we normally just emit an error. But it
is always safe to defer the mismatch to the main constraint solver. If we do
that, `a` will get transformed into
co :: Int ~ Char
co = ...
a :: Int
a = 'a' `cast` co
The constraint solver would realize that `co` is an insoluble constraint, and
emit an error with `reportUnsolved`. But we can also replace the right-hand side
of `co` with `error "Deferred type error: Int ~ Char"`. This allows the program
to compile, and it will run fine unless we evaluate `a`. This is what
`deferErrorsToRuntime` does.
It does this by keeping track of which errors correspond to which coercion
in TcErrors (with ErrEnv). TcErrors.reportTidyWanteds does not print the errors
and does not fail if -fdefer-type-errors is on, so that we can continue
compilation. The errors are turned into warnings in `reportUnsolved`.
-}
solveWantedsTcM :: [CtEvidence] -> TcM WantedConstraints
-- Simplify the input constraints
-- Discard the evidence binds
-- Discards all Derived stuff in result
-- Result is /not/ guaranteed zonked
solveWantedsTcM wanted
= do { (wanted1, _binds) <- runTcS (solveWantedsAndDrop (mkSimpleWC wanted))
; return wanted1 }
solveWantedsAndDrop :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints
-- Since solveWanteds returns the residual WantedConstraints,
-- it should always be called within a runTcS or something similar,
-- Result is not zonked
solveWantedsAndDrop wanted
= do { wc <- solveWanteds wanted
; return (dropDerivedWC wc) }
solveWanteds :: WantedConstraints -> TcS WantedConstraints
-- so that the inert set doesn't mindlessly propagate.
-- NB: wc_simples may be wanted /or/ derived now
solveWanteds wc@(WC { wc_simple = simples, wc_insol = insols, wc_impl = implics })
= do { traceTcS "solveWanteds {" (ppr wc)
-- Try the simple bit, including insolubles. Solving insolubles a
-- second time round is a bit of a waste; but the code is simple
-- and the program is wrong anyway, and we don't run the danger
-- of adding Derived insolubles twice; see
-- TcSMonad Note [Do not add duplicate derived insolubles]
; wc1 <- solveSimpleWanteds simples
; let WC { wc_simple = simples1, wc_insol = insols1, wc_impl = implics1 } = wc1
; (floated_eqs, implics2) <- solveNestedImplications (implics `unionBags` implics1)
; final_wc <- simpl_loop 0 floated_eqs
(WC { wc_simple = simples1, wc_impl = implics2
, wc_insol = insols `unionBags` insols1 })
; bb <- getTcEvBindsMap
; traceTcS "solveWanteds }" $
vcat [ text "final wc =" <+> ppr final_wc
, text "current evbinds =" <+> ppr (evBindMapBinds bb) ]
; return final_wc }
simpl_loop :: Int -> Cts
-> WantedConstraints
-> TcS WantedConstraints
simpl_loop n floated_eqs
wc@(WC { wc_simple = simples, wc_insol = insols, wc_impl = implics })
| n > 10
= do { traceTcS "solveWanteds: loop!" (ppr wc); return wc }
| no_floated_eqs
= return wc -- Done!
| otherwise
= do { traceTcS "simpl_loop, iteration" (int n)
-- solveSimples may make progress if either float_eqs hold
; (unifs_happened1, wc1) <- if no_floated_eqs
then return (False, emptyWC)
else reportUnifications $
solveSimpleWanteds (floated_eqs `unionBags` simples)
-- Put floated_eqs first so they get solved first
-- NB: the floated_eqs may include /derived/ equalities
-- arising from fundeps inside an implication
; let WC { wc_simple = simples1, wc_insol = insols1, wc_impl = implics1 } = wc1
-- solveImplications may make progress only if unifs2 holds
; (floated_eqs2, implics2) <- if not unifs_happened1 && isEmptyBag implics1
then return (emptyBag, implics)
else solveNestedImplications (implics `unionBags` implics1)
; simpl_loop (n+1) floated_eqs2
(WC { wc_simple = simples1, wc_impl = implics2
, wc_insol = insols `unionBags` insols1 }) }
where
no_floated_eqs = isEmptyBag floated_eqs
solveNestedImplications :: Bag Implication
-> TcS (Cts, Bag Implication)
-- Precondition: the TcS inerts may contain unsolved simples which have
-- to be converted to givens before we go inside a nested implication.
solveNestedImplications implics
| isEmptyBag implics
= return (emptyBag, emptyBag)
| otherwise
= do { traceTcS "solveNestedImplications starting {" empty
; (floated_eqs_s, unsolved_implics) <- mapAndUnzipBagM solveImplication implics
; let floated_eqs = concatBag floated_eqs_s
-- ... and we are back in the original TcS inerts
-- Notice that the original includes the _insoluble_simples so it was safe to ignore
-- them in the beginning of this function.
; traceTcS "solveNestedImplications end }" $
vcat [ text "all floated_eqs =" <+> ppr floated_eqs
, text "unsolved_implics =" <+> ppr unsolved_implics ]
; return (floated_eqs, catBagMaybes unsolved_implics) }
solveImplication :: Implication -- Wanted
-> TcS (Cts, -- All wanted or derived floated equalities: var = type
Maybe Implication) -- Simplified implication (empty or singleton)
-- Precondition: The TcS monad contains an empty worklist and given-only inerts
-- which after trying to solve this implication we must restore to their original value
solveImplication imp@(Implic { ic_tclvl = tclvl
, ic_binds = ev_binds
, ic_skols = skols
, ic_given = givens
, ic_wanted = wanteds
, ic_info = info
, ic_status = status
, ic_env = env })
| IC_Solved {} <- status
= return (emptyCts, Just imp) -- Do nothing
| otherwise -- Even for IC_Insoluble it is worth doing more work
-- The insoluble stuff might be in one sub-implication
-- and other unsolved goals in another; and we want to
-- solve the latter as much as possible
= do { inerts <- getTcSInerts
; traceTcS "solveImplication {" (ppr imp $$ text "Inerts" <+> ppr inerts)
-- Solve the nested constraints
; (no_given_eqs, given_insols, residual_wanted)
<- nestImplicTcS ev_binds tclvl $
do { given_insols <- solveSimpleGivens (mkGivenLoc tclvl info env) givens
; no_eqs <- getNoGivenEqs tclvl skols
; residual_wanted <- solveWanteds wanteds
-- solveWanteds, *not* solveWantedsAndDrop, because
-- we want to retain derived equalities so we can float
-- them out in floatEqualities
; return (no_eqs, given_insols, residual_wanted) }
; (floated_eqs, residual_wanted)
<- floatEqualities skols no_given_eqs residual_wanted
; let final_wanted = residual_wanted `addInsols` given_insols
; res_implic <- setImplicationStatus (imp { ic_no_eqs = no_given_eqs
, ic_wanted = final_wanted })
; evbinds <- getTcEvBindsMap
; traceTcS "solveImplication end }" $ vcat
[ text "no_given_eqs =" <+> ppr no_given_eqs
, text "floated_eqs =" <+> ppr floated_eqs
, text "res_implic =" <+> ppr res_implic
, text "implication evbinds = " <+> ppr (evBindMapBinds evbinds) ]
; return (floated_eqs, res_implic) }
----------------------
setImplicationStatus :: Implication -> TcS (Maybe Implication)
-- Finalise the implication returned from solveImplication:
-- * Set the ic_status field
-- * Trim the ic_wanted field to remove Derived constraints
-- Return Nothing if we can discard the implication altogether
setImplicationStatus implic@(Implic { ic_binds = EvBindsVar ev_binds_var _
, ic_info = info
, ic_wanted = wc
, ic_given = givens })
| some_insoluble
= return $ Just $
implic { ic_status = IC_Insoluble
, ic_wanted = wc { wc_simple = pruned_simples
, wc_insol = pruned_insols } }
| some_unsolved
= return $ Just $
implic { ic_status = IC_Unsolved
, ic_wanted = wc { wc_simple = pruned_simples
, wc_insol = pruned_insols } }
| otherwise -- Everything is solved; look at the implications
-- See Note [Tracking redundant constraints]
= do { ev_binds <- TcS.readTcRef ev_binds_var
; let all_needs = neededEvVars ev_binds implic_needs
dead_givens | warnRedundantGivens info
= filterOut (`elemVarSet` all_needs) givens
| otherwise = [] -- None to report
final_needs = all_needs `delVarSetList` givens
discard_entire_implication -- Can we discard the entire implication?
= null dead_givens -- No warning from this implication
&& isEmptyBag pruned_implics -- No live children
&& isEmptyVarSet final_needs -- No needed vars to pass up to parent
final_status = IC_Solved { ics_need = final_needs
, ics_dead = dead_givens }
final_implic = implic { ic_status = final_status
, ic_wanted = wc { wc_simple = pruned_simples
, wc_insol = pruned_insols
, wc_impl = pruned_implics } }
-- We can only prune the child implications (pruned_implics)
-- in the IC_Solved status case, because only then we can
-- accumulate their needed evidence variales into the
-- IC_Solved final_status field of the parent implication.
; return $ if discard_entire_implication
then Nothing
else Just final_implic }
where
WC { wc_simple = simples, wc_impl = implics, wc_insol = insols } = wc
some_insoluble = insolubleWC wc
some_unsolved = not (isEmptyBag simples && isEmptyBag insols)
|| isNothing mb_implic_needs
pruned_simples = dropDerivedSimples simples
pruned_insols = dropDerivedInsols insols
pruned_implics = filterBag need_to_keep_implic implics
mb_implic_needs :: Maybe VarSet
-- Just vs => all implics are IC_Solved, with 'vs' needed
-- Nothing => at least one implic is not IC_Solved
mb_implic_needs = foldrBag add_implic (Just emptyVarSet) implics
Just implic_needs = mb_implic_needs
add_implic implic acc
| Just vs_acc <- acc
, IC_Solved { ics_need = vs } <- ic_status implic
= Just (vs `unionVarSet` vs_acc)
| otherwise = Nothing
need_to_keep_implic ic
| IC_Solved { ics_dead = [] } <- ic_status ic
-- Fully solved, and no redundant givens to report
, isEmptyBag (wc_impl (ic_wanted ic))
-- And no children that might have things to report
= False
| otherwise
= True
warnRedundantGivens :: SkolemInfo -> Bool
warnRedundantGivens (SigSkol ctxt _)
= case ctxt of
FunSigCtxt _ warn_redundant -> warn_redundant
ExprSigCtxt -> True
_ -> False
warnRedundantGivens InstSkol = True
warnRedundantGivens _ = False
neededEvVars :: EvBindMap -> VarSet -> VarSet
-- Find all the evidence variables that are "needed",
-- and then delete all those bound by the evidence bindings
-- A variable is "needed" if
-- a) it is free in the RHS of a Wanted EvBind (add_wanted)
-- b) it is free in the RHS of an EvBind whose LHS is needed (transClo)
-- c) it is in the ic_need_evs of a nested implication (initial_seeds)
-- (after removing the givens)
neededEvVars ev_binds initial_seeds
= needed `minusVarSet` bndrs
where
seeds = foldEvBindMap add_wanted initial_seeds ev_binds
needed = transCloVarSet also_needs seeds
bndrs = foldEvBindMap add_bndr emptyVarSet ev_binds
add_wanted :: EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet
add_wanted (EvBind { eb_is_given = is_given, eb_rhs = rhs }) needs
| is_given = needs -- Add the rhs vars of the Wanted bindings only
| otherwise = evVarsOfTerm rhs `unionVarSet` needs
also_needs :: VarSet -> VarSet
also_needs needs
= foldVarSet add emptyVarSet needs
where
add v needs
| Just ev_bind <- lookupEvBind ev_binds v
, EvBind { eb_is_given = is_given, eb_rhs = rhs } <- ev_bind
, is_given
= evVarsOfTerm rhs `unionVarSet` needs
| otherwise
= needs
add_bndr :: EvBind -> VarSet -> VarSet
add_bndr (EvBind { eb_lhs = v }) vs = extendVarSet vs v
{-
Note [Tracking redundant constraints]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
With Opt_WarnRedundantConstraints, GHC can report which
constraints of a type signature (or instance declaration) are
redundant, and can be omitted. Here is an overview of how it
works:
----- What is a redudant constraint?
* The things that can be redundant are precisely the Given
constraints of an implication.
* A constraint can be redundant in two different ways:
a) It is implied by other givens. E.g.
f :: (Eq a, Ord a) => blah -- Eq a unnecessary
g :: (Eq a, a~b, Eq b) => blah -- Either Eq a or Eq b unnecessary
b) It is not needed by the Wanted constraints covered by the
implication E.g.
f :: Eq a => a -> Bool
f x = True -- Equality not uesd
* To find (a), when we have two Given constraints,
we must be careful to drop the one that is a naked variable (if poss).
So if we have
f :: (Eq a, Ord a) => blah
then we may find [G] sc_sel (d1::Ord a) :: Eq a
[G] d2 :: Eq a
We want to discard d2 in favour of the superclass selection from
the Ord dictionary. This is done by TcInteract.solveOneFromTheOther
See Note [Replacement vs keeping].
* To find (b) we need to know which evidence bindings are 'wanted';
hence the eb_is_given field on an EvBind.
----- How tracking works
* When the constraint solver finishes solving all the wanteds in
an implication, it sets its status to IC_Solved
- The ics_dead field of IC_Solved records the subset of the ic_given
of this implication that are redundant (not needed).
- The ics_need field of IC_Solved then records all the
in-scope (given) evidence variables, bound by the context, that
were needed to solve this implication, including all its nested
implications. (We remove the ic_given of this implication from
the set, of course.)
* We compute which evidence variables are needed by an implication
in setImplicationStatus. A variable is needed if
a) it is free in the RHS of a Wanted EvBind
b) it is free in the RHS of an EvBind whose LHS is needed
c) it is in the ics_need of a nested implication
* We need to be careful not to discard an implication
prematurely, even one that is fully solved, because we might
thereby forget which variables it needs, and hence wrongly
report a constraint as redundant. But we can discard it once
its free vars have been incorporated into its parent; or if it
simply has no free vars. This careful discarding is also
handled in setImplicationStatus
----- Reporting redundant constraints
* TcErrors does the actual warning, in warnRedundantConstraints.
* We don't report redundant givens for *every* implication; only
for those which reply True to TcSimplify.warnRedundantGivens:
- For example, in a class declaration, the default method *can*
use the class constraint, but it certainly doesn't *have* to,
and we don't want to report an error there.
- More subtly, in a function definition
f :: (Ord a, Ord a, Ix a) => a -> a
f x = rhs
we do an ambiguity check on the type (which would find that one
of the Ord a constraints was redundant), and then we check that
the definition has that type (which might find that both are
redundant). We don't want to report the same error twice, so
we disable it for the ambiguity check. Hence the flag in
TcType.FunSigCtxt.
This decision is taken in setImplicationStatus, rather than TcErrors
so that we can discard implication constraints that we don't need.
So ics_dead consists only of the *reportable* redundant givens.
----- Shortcomings
Consider (see Trac #9939)
f2 :: (Eq a, Ord a) => a -> a -> Bool
-- Ord a redundant, but Eq a is reported
f2 x y = (x == y)
We report (Eq a) as redundant, whereas actually (Ord a) is. But it's
really not easy to detect that!
Note [Cutting off simpl_loop]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It is very important not to iterate in simpl_loop unless there is a chance
of progress. Trac #8474 is a classic example:
* There's a deeply-nested chain of implication constraints.
?x:alpha => ?y1:beta1 => ... ?yn:betan => [W] ?x:Int
* From the innermost one we get a [D] alpha ~ Int,
but alpha is untouchable until we get out to the outermost one
* We float [D] alpha~Int out (it is in floated_eqs), but since alpha
is untouchable, the solveInteract in simpl_loop makes no progress
* So there is no point in attempting to re-solve
?yn:betan => [W] ?x:Int
because we'll just get the same [D] again
* If we *do* re-solve, we'll get an ininite loop. It is cut off by
the fixed bound of 10, but solving the next takes 10*10*...*10 (ie
exponentially many) iterations!
Conclusion: we should iterate simpl_loop iff we will get more 'givens'
in the inert set when solving the nested implications. That is the
result of prepareInertsForImplications is larger. How can we tell
this?
Consider floated_eqs (all wanted or derived):
(a) [W/D] CTyEqCan (a ~ ty). This can give rise to a new given only by causing
a unification. So we count those unifications.
(b) [W] CFunEqCan (F tys ~ xi). Even though these are wanted, they
are pushed in as givens by prepareInertsForImplications. See Note
[Preparing inert set for implications] in TcSMonad. But because
of that very fact, we won't generate another copy if we iterate
simpl_loop. So we iterate if there any of these
-}
promoteTyVar :: TcLevel -> TcTyVar -> TcS TcTyVar
-- When we float a constraint out of an implication we must restore
-- invariant (MetaTvInv) in Note [TcLevel and untouchable type variables] in TcType
-- See Note [Promoting unification variables]
promoteTyVar tclvl tv
| isFloatedTouchableMetaTyVar tclvl tv
= do { cloned_tv <- TcS.cloneMetaTyVar tv
; let rhs_tv = setMetaTyVarTcLevel cloned_tv tclvl
; unifyTyVar tv (mkTyVarTy rhs_tv)
; return rhs_tv }
| otherwise
= return tv
promoteAndDefaultTyVar :: TcLevel -> TcTyVarSet -> TcTyVar -> TcS TcTyVar
-- See Note [Promote _and_ default when inferring]
promoteAndDefaultTyVar tclvl gbl_tvs tv
= do { tv1 <- if tv `elemVarSet` gbl_tvs
then return tv
else defaultTyVar tv
; promoteTyVar tclvl tv1 }
defaultTyVar :: TcTyVar -> TcS TcTyVar
-- Precondition: MetaTyVars only
-- See Note [DefaultTyVar]
defaultTyVar the_tv
| Just default_k <- defaultKind_maybe (tyVarKind the_tv)
= do { tv' <- TcS.cloneMetaTyVar the_tv
; let new_tv = setTyVarKind tv' default_k
; traceTcS "defaultTyVar" (ppr the_tv <+> ppr new_tv)
; unifyTyVar the_tv (mkTyVarTy new_tv)
; return new_tv }
-- Why not directly derived_pred = mkTcEqPred k default_k?
-- See Note [DefaultTyVar]
-- We keep the same TcLevel on tv'
| otherwise = return the_tv -- The common case
approximateWC :: WantedConstraints -> Cts
-- Postcondition: Wanted or Derived Cts
-- See Note [ApproximateWC]
approximateWC wc
= float_wc emptyVarSet wc
where
float_wc :: TcTyVarSet -> WantedConstraints -> Cts
float_wc trapping_tvs (WC { wc_simple = simples, wc_impl = implics })
= filterBag is_floatable simples `unionBags`
do_bag (float_implic new_trapping_tvs) implics
where
is_floatable ct = tyVarsOfCt ct `disjointVarSet` new_trapping_tvs
new_trapping_tvs = transCloVarSet grow trapping_tvs
grow :: VarSet -> VarSet -- Maps current trapped tyvars to newly-trapped ones
grow so_far = foldrBag (grow_one so_far) emptyVarSet simples
grow_one so_far ct tvs
| ct_tvs `intersectsVarSet` so_far = tvs `unionVarSet` ct_tvs
| otherwise = tvs
where
ct_tvs = tyVarsOfCt ct
float_implic :: TcTyVarSet -> Implication -> Cts
float_implic trapping_tvs imp
| ic_no_eqs imp -- No equalities, so float
= float_wc new_trapping_tvs (ic_wanted imp)
| otherwise -- Don't float out of equalities
= emptyCts -- See Note [ApproximateWC]
where
new_trapping_tvs = trapping_tvs `extendVarSetList` ic_skols imp
do_bag :: (a -> Bag c) -> Bag a -> Bag c
do_bag f = foldrBag (unionBags.f) emptyBag
{-
Note [ApproximateWC]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
approximateWC takes a constraint, typically arising from the RHS of a
let-binding whose type we are *inferring*, and extracts from it some
*simple* constraints that we might plausibly abstract over. Of course
the top-level simple constraints are plausible, but we also float constraints
out from inside, if they are not captured by skolems.
The same function is used when doing type-class defaulting (see the call
to applyDefaultingRules) to extract constraints that that might be defaulted.
There are two caveats:
1. We do *not* float anything out if the implication binds equality
constraints, because that defeats the OutsideIn story. Consider
data T a where
TInt :: T Int
MkT :: T a
f TInt = 3::Int
We get the implication (a ~ Int => res ~ Int), where so far we've decided
f :: T a -> res
We don't want to float (res~Int) out because then we'll infer
f :: T a -> Int
which is only on of the possible types. (GHC 7.6 accidentally *did*
float out of such implications, which meant it would happily infer
non-principal types.)
2. We do not float out an inner constraint that shares a type variable
(transitively) with one that is trapped by a skolem. Eg
forall a. F a ~ beta, Integral beta
We don't want to float out (Integral beta). Doing so would be bad
when defaulting, because then we'll default beta:=Integer, and that
makes the error message much worse; we'd get
Can't solve F a ~ Integer
rather than
Can't solve Integral (F a)
Moreover, floating out these "contaminated" constraints doesn't help
when generalising either. If we generalise over (Integral b), we still
can't solve the retained implication (forall a. F a ~ b). Indeed,
arguably that too would be a harder error to understand.
Note [DefaultTyVar]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
defaultTyVar is used on any un-instantiated meta type variables to
default the kind of OpenKind and ArgKind etc to *. This is important
to ensure that instance declarations match. For example consider
instance Show (a->b)
foo x = show (\_ -> True)
Then we'll get a constraint (Show (p ->q)) where p has kind ArgKind,
and that won't match the typeKind (*) in the instance decl. See tests
tc217 and tc175.
We look only at touchable type variables. No further constraints
are going to affect these type variables, so it's time to do it by
hand. However we aren't ready to default them fully to () or
whatever, because the type-class defaulting rules have yet to run.
An important point is that if the type variable tv has kind k and the
default is default_k we do not simply generate [D] (k ~ default_k) because:
(1) k may be ArgKind and default_k may be * so we will fail
(2) We need to rewrite all occurrences of the tv to be a type
variable with the right kind and we choose to do this by rewriting
the type variable /itself/ by a new variable which does have the
right kind.
Note [Promote _and_ default when inferring]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When we are inferring a type, we simplify the constraint, and then use
approximateWC to produce a list of candidate constraints. Then we MUST
a) Promote any meta-tyvars that have been floated out by
approximateWC, to restore invariant (MetaTvInv) described in
Note [TcLevel and untouchable type variables] in TcType.
b) Default the kind of any meta-tyyvars that are not mentioned in
in the environment.
To see (b), suppose the constraint is (C ((a :: OpenKind) -> Int)), and we
have an instance (C ((x:*) -> Int)). The instance doesn't match -- but it
should! If we don't solve the constraint, we'll stupidly quantify over
(C (a->Int)) and, worse, in doing so zonkQuantifiedTyVar will quantify over
(b:*) instead of (a:OpenKind), which can lead to disaster; see Trac #7332.
Trac #7641 is a simpler example.
Note [Promoting unification variables]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When we float an equality out of an implication we must "promote" free
unification variables of the equality, in order to maintain Invariant
(MetaTvInv) from Note [TcLevel and untouchable type variables] in TcType. for the
leftover implication.
This is absolutely necessary. Consider the following example. We start
with two implications and a class with a functional dependency.
class C x y | x -> y
instance C [a] [a]
(I1) [untch=beta]forall b. 0 => F Int ~ [beta]
(I2) [untch=beta]forall c. 0 => F Int ~ [[alpha]] /\ C beta [c]
We float (F Int ~ [beta]) out of I1, and we float (F Int ~ [[alpha]]) out of I2.
They may react to yield that (beta := [alpha]) which can then be pushed inwards
the leftover of I2 to get (C [alpha] [a]) which, using the FunDep, will mean that
(alpha := a). In the end we will have the skolem 'b' escaping in the untouchable
beta! Concrete example is in indexed_types/should_fail/ExtraTcsUntch.hs:
class C x y | x -> y where
op :: x -> y -> ()
instance C [a] [a]
type family F a :: *
h :: F Int -> ()
h = undefined
data TEx where
TEx :: a -> TEx
f (x::beta) =
let g1 :: forall b. b -> ()
g1 _ = h [x]
g2 z = case z of TEx y -> (h [[undefined]], op x [y])
in (g1 '3', g2 undefined)
Note [Solving Family Equations]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
After we are done with simplification we may be left with constraints of the form:
[Wanted] F xis ~ beta
If 'beta' is a touchable unification variable not already bound in the TyBinds
then we'd like to create a binding for it, effectively "defaulting" it to be 'F xis'.
When is it ok to do so?
1) 'beta' must not already be defaulted to something. Example:
[Wanted] F Int ~ beta <~ Will default [beta := F Int]
[Wanted] F Char ~ beta <~ Already defaulted, can't default again. We
have to report this as unsolved.
2) However, we must still do an occurs check when defaulting (F xis ~ beta), to
set [beta := F xis] only if beta is not among the free variables of xis.
3) Notice that 'beta' can't be bound in ty binds already because we rewrite RHS
of type family equations. See Inert Set invariants in TcInteract.
This solving is now happening during zonking, see Note [Unflattening while zonking]
in TcMType.
*********************************************************************************
* *
* Floating equalities *
* *
*********************************************************************************
Note [Float Equalities out of Implications]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
For ordinary pattern matches (including existentials) we float
equalities out of implications, for instance:
data T where
MkT :: Eq a => a -> T
f x y = case x of MkT _ -> (y::Int)
We get the implication constraint (x::T) (y::alpha):
forall a. [untouchable=alpha] Eq a => alpha ~ Int
We want to float out the equality into a scope where alpha is no
longer untouchable, to solve the implication!
But we cannot float equalities out of implications whose givens may
yield or contain equalities:
data T a where
T1 :: T Int
T2 :: T Bool
T3 :: T a
h :: T a -> a -> Int
f x y = case x of
T1 -> y::Int
T2 -> y::Bool
T3 -> h x y
We generate constraint, for (x::T alpha) and (y :: beta):
[untouchables = beta] (alpha ~ Int => beta ~ Int) -- From 1st branch
[untouchables = beta] (alpha ~ Bool => beta ~ Bool) -- From 2nd branch
(alpha ~ beta) -- From 3rd branch
If we float the equality (beta ~ Int) outside of the first implication and
the equality (beta ~ Bool) out of the second we get an insoluble constraint.
But if we just leave them inside the implications we unify alpha := beta and
solve everything.
Principle:
We do not want to float equalities out which may
need the given *evidence* to become soluble.
Consequence: classes with functional dependencies don't matter (since there is
no evidence for a fundep equality), but equality superclasses do matter (since
they carry evidence).
-}
floatEqualities :: [TcTyVar] -> Bool
-> WantedConstraints
-> TcS (Cts, WantedConstraints)
-- Main idea: see Note [Float Equalities out of Implications]
--
-- Precondition: the wc_simple of the incoming WantedConstraints are
-- fully zonked, so that we can see their free variables
--
-- Postcondition: The returned floated constraints (Cts) are only
-- Wanted or Derived and come from the input wanted
-- ev vars or deriveds
--
-- Also performs some unifications (via promoteTyVar), adding to
-- monadically-carried ty_binds. These will be used when processing
-- floated_eqs later
--
-- Subtleties: Note [Float equalities from under a skolem binding]
-- Note [Skolem escape]
floatEqualities skols no_given_eqs wanteds@(WC { wc_simple = simples })
| not no_given_eqs -- There are some given equalities, so don't float
= return (emptyBag, wanteds) -- Note [Float Equalities out of Implications]
| otherwise
= do { outer_tclvl <- TcS.getTcLevel
; mapM_ (promoteTyVar outer_tclvl) (varSetElems (tyVarsOfCts float_eqs))
-- See Note [Promoting unification variables]
; traceTcS "floatEqualities" (vcat [ text "Skols =" <+> ppr skols
, text "Simples =" <+> ppr simples
, text "Floated eqs =" <+> ppr float_eqs ])
; return (float_eqs, wanteds { wc_simple = remaining_simples }) }
where
skol_set = mkVarSet skols
(float_eqs, remaining_simples) = partitionBag (usefulToFloat is_useful) simples
is_useful pred = tyVarsOfType pred `disjointVarSet` skol_set
{- Note [Float equalities from under a skolem binding]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Which of the simple equalities can we float out? Obviously, only
ones that don't mention the skolem-bound variables. But that is
over-eager. Consider
[2] forall a. F a beta[1] ~ gamma[2], G beta[1] gamma[2] ~ Int
The second constraint doesn't mention 'a'. But if we float it
we'll promote gamma[2] to gamma'[1]. Now suppose that we learn that
beta := Bool, and F a Bool = a, and G Bool _ = Int. Then we'll
we left with the constraint
[2] forall a. a ~ gamma'[1]
which is insoluble because gamma became untouchable.
Solution: float only constraints that stand a jolly good chance of
being soluble simply by being floated, namely ones of form
a ~ ty
where 'a' is a currently-untouchable unification variable, but may
become touchable by being floated (perhaps by more than one level).
We had a very complicated rule previously, but this is nice and
simple. (To see the notes, look at this Note in a version of
TcSimplify prior to Oct 2014).
Note [Skolem escape]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
You might worry about skolem escape with all this floating.
For example, consider
[2] forall a. (a ~ F beta[2] delta,
Maybe beta[2] ~ gamma[1])
The (Maybe beta ~ gamma) doesn't mention 'a', so we float it, and
solve with gamma := beta. But what if later delta:=Int, and
F b Int = b.
Then we'd get a ~ beta[2], and solve to get beta:=a, and now the
skolem has escaped!
But it's ok: when we float (Maybe beta[2] ~ gamma[1]), we promote beta[2]
to beta[1], and that means the (a ~ beta[1]) will be stuck, as it should be.
*********************************************************************************
* *
* Defaulting and disamgiguation *
* *
*********************************************************************************
-}
applyDefaultingRules :: WantedConstraints -> TcS Bool
-- True <=> I did some defaulting, by unifying a meta-tyvar
-- Imput WantedConstraints are not necessarily zonked
applyDefaultingRules wanteds
| isEmptyWC wanteds
= return False
| otherwise
= do { info@(default_tys, _) <- getDefaultInfo
; wanteds <- TcS.zonkWC wanteds
; let groups = findDefaultableGroups info wanteds
; traceTcS "applyDefaultingRules {" $
vcat [ text "wanteds =" <+> ppr wanteds
, text "groups =" <+> ppr groups
, text "info =" <+> ppr info ]
; something_happeneds <- mapM (disambigGroup default_tys) groups
; traceTcS "applyDefaultingRules }" (ppr something_happeneds)
; return (or something_happeneds) }
findDefaultableGroups
:: ( [Type]
, (Bool,Bool) ) -- (Overloaded strings, extended default rules)
-> WantedConstraints -- Unsolved (wanted or derived)
-> [(TyVar, [Ct])]
findDefaultableGroups (default_tys, (ovl_strings, extended_defaults)) wanteds
| null default_tys
= []
| otherwise
= [ (tv, map fstOf3 group)
| group@((_,_,tv):_) <- unary_groups
, defaultable_tyvar tv
, defaultable_classes (map sndOf3 group) ]
where
simples = approximateWC wanteds
(unaries, non_unaries) = partitionWith find_unary (bagToList simples)
unary_groups = equivClasses cmp_tv unaries
unary_groups :: [[(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)]] -- (C tv) constraints
unaries :: [(Ct, Class, TcTyVar)] -- (C tv) constraints
non_unaries :: [Ct] -- and *other* constraints
-- Finds unary type-class constraints
-- But take account of polykinded classes like Typeable,
-- which may look like (Typeable * (a:*)) (Trac #8931)
find_unary cc
| Just (cls,tys) <- getClassPredTys_maybe (ctPred cc)
, Just (kinds, ty) <- snocView tys -- Ignore kind arguments
, all isKind kinds -- for this purpose
, Just tv <- tcGetTyVar_maybe ty
, isMetaTyVar tv -- We might have runtime-skolems in GHCi, and
-- we definitely don't want to try to assign to those!
= Left (cc, cls, tv)
find_unary cc = Right cc -- Non unary or non dictionary
bad_tvs :: TcTyVarSet -- TyVars mentioned by non-unaries
bad_tvs = mapUnionVarSet tyVarsOfCt non_unaries
cmp_tv (_,_,tv1) (_,_,tv2) = tv1 `compare` tv2
defaultable_tyvar tv
= let b1 = isTyConableTyVar tv -- Note [Avoiding spurious errors]
b2 = not (tv `elemVarSet` bad_tvs)
in b1 && b2
defaultable_classes clss
| extended_defaults = any isInteractiveClass clss
| otherwise = all is_std_class clss && (any is_num_class clss)
-- In interactive mode, or with -XExtendedDefaultRules,
-- we default Show a to Show () to avoid graututious errors on "show []"
isInteractiveClass cls
= is_num_class cls || (classKey cls `elem` [showClassKey, eqClassKey, ordClassKey])
is_num_class cls = isNumericClass cls || (ovl_strings && (cls `hasKey` isStringClassKey))
-- is_num_class adds IsString to the standard numeric classes,
-- when -foverloaded-strings is enabled
is_std_class cls = isStandardClass cls || (ovl_strings && (cls `hasKey` isStringClassKey))
-- Similarly is_std_class
------------------------------
disambigGroup :: [Type] -- The default types
-> (TcTyVar, [Ct]) -- All classes of the form (C a)
-- sharing same type variable
-> TcS Bool -- True <=> something happened, reflected in ty_binds
disambigGroup [] _
= return False
disambigGroup (default_ty:default_tys) group@(the_tv, wanteds)
= do { traceTcS "disambigGroup {" (vcat [ ppr default_ty, ppr the_tv, ppr wanteds ])
; fake_ev_binds_var <- TcS.newTcEvBinds
; tclvl <- TcS.getTcLevel
; success <- nestImplicTcS fake_ev_binds_var (pushTcLevel tclvl)
try_group
; if success then
-- Success: record the type variable binding, and return
do { unifyTyVar the_tv default_ty
; wrapWarnTcS $ warnDefaulting wanteds default_ty
; traceTcS "disambigGroup succeeded }" (ppr default_ty)
; return True }
else
-- Failure: try with the next type
do { traceTcS "disambigGroup failed, will try other default types }"
(ppr default_ty)
; disambigGroup default_tys group } }
where
try_group
| Just subst <- mb_subst
= do { wanted_evs <- mapM (newWantedEvVarNC loc . substTy subst . ctPred)
wanteds
; residual_wanted <- solveSimpleWanteds $ listToBag $
map mkNonCanonical wanted_evs
; return (isEmptyWC residual_wanted) }
| otherwise
= return False
tmpl_tvs = extendVarSet (tyVarsOfType (tyVarKind the_tv)) the_tv
mb_subst = tcMatchTy tmpl_tvs (mkTyVarTy the_tv) default_ty
-- Make sure the kinds match too; hence this call to tcMatchTy
-- E.g. suppose the only constraint was (Typeable k (a::k))
loc = CtLoc { ctl_origin = GivenOrigin UnkSkol
, ctl_env = panic "disambigGroup:env"
, ctl_depth = initialSubGoalDepth }
{-
Note [Avoiding spurious errors]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When doing the unification for defaulting, we check for skolem
type variables, and simply don't default them. For example:
f = (*) -- Monomorphic
g :: Num a => a -> a
g x = f x x
Here, we get a complaint when checking the type signature for g,
that g isn't polymorphic enough; but then we get another one when
dealing with the (Num a) context arising from f's definition;
we try to unify a with Int (to default it), but find that it's
already been unified with the rigid variable from g's type sig
-}