-- Standard list functions
module PreludeList (
map, (++), filter, concat, concatMap,
head, last, tail, init, null, length, (!!),
foldl, foldl1, scanl, scanl1, foldr, foldr1, scanr, scanr1,
iterate, repeat, replicate, cycle,
take, drop, splitAt, takeWhile, dropWhile, span, break,
lines, words, unlines, unwords, reverse, and, or,
any, all, elem, notElem, lookup,
sum, product, maximum, minimum,
zip, zip3, zipWith, zipWith3, unzip, unzip3)
where
import qualified Char(isSpace)
infixl 9 !!
infixr 5 ++
infix 4 `elem`, `notElem`
-- Map and append
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map f [] = []
map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs
(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
[] ++ ys = ys
(x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys)
filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
filter p [] = []
filter p (x:xs) | p x = x : filter p xs
| otherwise = filter p xs
concat :: [[a]] -> [a]
concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss
concatMap :: (a -> [b]) -> [a] -> [b]
concatMap f = concat . map f
-- head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements,
-- respectively, of a list, which must be non-empty. last and init
-- are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list,
-- rather than the beginning.
head :: [a] -> a
head (x:_) = x
head [] = error "Prelude.head: empty list"
tail :: [a] -> [a]
tail (_:xs) = xs
tail [] = error "Prelude.tail: empty list"
last :: [a] -> a
last [x] = x
last (_:xs) = last xs
last [] = error "Prelude.last: empty list"
init :: [a] -> [a]
init [x] = []
init (x:xs) = x : init xs
init [] = error "Prelude.init: empty list"
null :: [a] -> Bool
null [] = True
null (_:_) = False
-- length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.
length :: [a] -> Int
length [] = 0
length (_:l) = 1 + length l
-- List index (subscript) operator, 0-origin
(!!) :: [a] -> Int -> a
xs !! n | n < 0 = error "Prelude.!!: negative index"
[] !! _ = error "Prelude.!!: index too large"
(x:_) !! 0 = x
(_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n-1)
-- foldl, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the
-- left-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using
-- the binary operator, from left to right:
-- foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn
-- foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument, and thus must
-- be applied to non-empty lists. scanl is similar to foldl, but returns
-- a list of successive reduced values from the left:
-- scanl f z [x1, x2, ...] == [z, z `f` x1, (z `f` x1) `f` x2, ...]
-- Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.
-- scanl1 is similar, again without the starting element:
-- scanl1 f [x1, x2, ...] == [x1, x1 `f` x2, ...]
foldl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> a
foldl f z [] = z
foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs
foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a
foldl1 f (x:xs) = foldl f x xs
foldl1 _ [] = error "Prelude.foldl1: empty list"
scanl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> [a]
scanl f q xs = q : (case xs of
[] -> []
x:xs -> scanl f (f q x) xs)
scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
scanl1 f (x:xs) = scanl f x xs
scanl1 _ [] = []
-- foldr, foldr1, scanr, and scanr1 are the right-to-left duals of the
-- above functions.
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
foldr f z [] = z
foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs)
foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a
foldr1 f [x] = x
foldr1 f (x:xs) = f x (foldr1 f xs)
foldr1 _ [] = error "Prelude.foldr1: empty list"
scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b]
scanr f q0 [] = [q0]
scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs
where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs
scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
scanr1 f [] = []
scanr1 f [x] = [x]
scanr1 f (x:xs) = f x q : qs
where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs
-- iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x:
-- iterate f x == [x, f x, f (f x), ...]
iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a]
iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x)
-- repeat x is an infinite list, with x the value of every element.
repeat :: a -> [a]
repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs
-- replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element
replicate :: Int -> a -> [a]
replicate n x = take n (repeat x)
-- cycle ties a finite list into a circular one, or equivalently,
-- the infinite repetition of the original list. It is the identity
-- on infinite lists.
cycle :: [a] -> [a]
cycle [] = error "Prelude.cycle: empty list"
cycle xs = xs' where xs' = xs ++ xs'
-- take n, applied to a list xs, returns the prefix of xs of length n,
-- or xs itself if n > length xs. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs
-- after the first n elements, or [] if n > length xs. splitAt n xs
-- is equivalent to (take n xs, drop n xs).
take :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
take n _ | n <= 0 = []
take _ [] = []
take n (x:xs) = x : take (n-1) xs
drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
drop n xs | n <= 0 = xs
drop _ [] = []
drop n (_:xs) = drop (n-1) xs
splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a],[a])
splitAt n xs = (take n xs, drop n xs)
-- takeWhile, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns the longest
-- prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. dropWhile p xs
-- returns the remaining suffix. span p xs is equivalent to
-- (takeWhile p xs, dropWhile p xs), while break p uses the negation of p.
takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
takeWhile p [] = []
takeWhile p (x:xs)
| p x = x : takeWhile p xs
| otherwise = []
dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
dropWhile p [] = []
dropWhile p xs@(x:xs')
| p x = dropWhile p xs'
| otherwise = xs
span, break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a],[a])
span p [] = ([],[])
span p xs@(x:xs')
| p x = (x:ys,zs)
| otherwise = ([],xs)
where (ys,zs) = span p xs'
break p = span (not . p)
-- lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters.
-- The resulting strings do not contain newlines. Similary, words
-- breaks a string up into a list of words, which were delimited by
-- white space. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations.
-- unlines joins lines with terminating newlines, and unwords joins
-- words with separating spaces.
lines :: String -> [String]
lines "" = []
lines s = let (l, s') = break (== '\n') s
in l : case s' of
[] -> []
(_:s'') -> lines s''
words :: String -> [String]
words s = case dropWhile Char.isSpace s of
"" -> []
s' -> w : words s''
where (w, s'') = break Char.isSpace s'
unlines :: [String] -> String
unlines = concatMap (++ "\n")
unwords :: [String] -> String
unwords [] = ""
unwords ws = foldr1 (\w s -> w ++ ' ':s) ws
-- reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. xs must be finite.
reverse :: [a] -> [a]
reverse = foldl (flip (:)) []
-- and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. For the result to be
-- True, the list must be finite; False, however, results from a False
-- value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. or is the
-- disjunctive dual of and.
and, or :: [Bool] -> Bool
and = foldr (&&) True
or = foldr (||) False
-- Applied to a predicate and a list, any determines if any element
-- of the list satisfies the predicate. Similarly, for all.
any, all :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool
any p = or . map p
all p = and . map p
-- elem is the list membership predicate, usually written in infix form,
-- e.g., x `elem` xs. notElem is the negation.
elem, notElem :: (Eq a) => a -> [a] -> Bool
elem x = any (== x)
notElem x = all (/= x)
-- lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.
lookup :: (Eq a) => a -> [(a,b)] -> Maybe b
lookup key [] = Nothing
lookup key ((x,y):xys)
| key == x = Just y
| otherwise = lookup key xys
-- sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers.
sum, product :: (Num a) => [a] -> a
sum = foldl (+) 0
product = foldl (*) 1
-- maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list,
-- which must be non-empty, finite, and of an ordered type.
maximum, minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] -> a
maximum [] = error "Prelude.maximum: empty list"
maximum xs = foldl1 max xs
minimum [] = error "Prelude.minimum: empty list"
minimum xs = foldl1 min xs
-- zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. If one
-- input list is short, excess elements of the longer list are discarded.
-- zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples. Zips for larger
-- tuples are in the List library
zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a,b)]
zip = zipWith (,)
zip3 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [(a,b,c)]
zip3 = zipWith3 (,,)
-- The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the
-- function given as the first argument, instead of a tupling function.
-- For example, zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list
-- of corresponding sums.
zipWith :: (a->b->c) -> [a]->[b]->[c]
zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs)
= z a b : zipWith z as bs
zipWith _ _ _ = []
zipWith3 :: (a->b->c->d) -> [a]->[b]->[c]->[d]
zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs)
= z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs
zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = []
-- unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.
unzip :: [(a,b)] -> ([a],[b])
unzip = foldr (\(a,b) ~(as,bs) -> (a:as,b:bs)) ([],[])
unzip3 :: [(a,b,c)] -> ([a],[b],[c])
unzip3 = foldr (\(a,b,c) ~(as,bs,cs) -> (a:as,b:bs,c:cs))
([],[],[])